Espresso coffee, today well known throughout the world, was invented in 1884. The machine which produced it was patented by Angelo Moriondo of Turin. The invention was then covered by International Patent after being registered in Paris on the 23rd of October 1885. 17 years later, in 1901, the machine was improved by Luigi Bezzera of Milan, who patented his improvements. In 1938, Cresemonesi introduced a piston based espresso machine, which eliminated the burnt taste associated with the steam pressure units.
Most Italians drink their coffee quickly at the bar before heading off to work but not all coffee drinking in Italy takes place at the bar, morning coffee is often made at home using a Moka. Thou shalt only drink cappuccino, caffé latte, latte macchiato or any milky form of coffee in the morning, and never after a meal!
At a bar or restaurant you can order different type of espresso or beverages with espresso coffee:
Espresso: dark, strong coffee.
Doppio espresso: double espresso.
Ristretto: more concentrated than a regular espresso that is made with less water, has less caffeine than espresso.
Corto: more concentrated than a regular espresso that is made with less water and is strong as espresso.
Caffè lungo: espresso made with more water – opposite a ristretto.
Macchiato: espresso that is “marked” with a dollop of steamed milk on top.
Corretto: espresso that is “corrected” with grappa.
Cappuccino: espresso with foamed milk and containing equal parts espresso, steamed milk and foamed milk.
Caffe’ latte: espresso made with more milk than a cappuccino but only a small amount of foam.
Latte macchiato: steamed milk that is “marked” (sometimes ornately) with a shot of espresso coffee.